This document aims to show how to use yagmail in your programs. Most of what is shown here is also available to see in the README, some content may be duplicated for completeness.

Start a Connection

As mentioned in Configuring Credentials, there are three ways to initialize a connection by instantiating yagmail.SMTP:

1. With Username and Password: e.g. yagmail.SMTP('mygmailusername', 'mygmailpassword') This method is not recommended, since you would be storing the full credentials to your account in your script in plain text. A better alternative is using keyring, as described in the following section:

2. With Username and keyring: After registering a keyring entry for yagmail, you can instantiate the client by simply passing your username, e.g. yagmail.SMTP('mygmailusername').

3. With keyring and .yagmail: As explained in the Setup documentation, you can also omit the username if you have a .yagmail file in your home folder, containing just your GMail username. This way, you can initialize yagmail.SMTP without any arguments.

4. With OAuth2: This is probably the safest method of authentication, as you can revoke the rights of tokens. To initialize with OAuth2 credentials (after obtaining these as shown in Setup), simply pass an oauth2_file to yagmail.SMTP, for example yagmail.SMTP('', oauth2_file='~/oauth2_creds.json').

Closing and reusing the Connection

By default, yagmail.SMTP will clean up after itself in CPython. This is an implementation detail of CPython and as such may not work in other implementations such as PyPy (reported in issue #39). In those cases, you can use yagmail.SMTP with with instead.

Alternatively, you can close and re-use the connection with yagmail.SMTP.close() and yagmail.SMTP.login() (or yagmail.SMTP.oauth2_file() if you are using OAuth2).

Sending E-Mails

yagmail.SMTP.send() is a fairly versatile method that allows you to adjust more or less anything about your Mail. First of all, all parameters for yagmail.SMTP.send() are optional. If you omit the recipient (specified with to), you will send an E-Mail to yourself.

Since the use of the (keyword) arguments of yagmail.SMTP.send() are fairly obvious, they will simply be listed here:

  • to
  • subject
  • contents
  • attachments
  • cc
  • bcc
  • preview_only
  • headers

Some of these - namely to and contents - have some magic associated with them which will be outlined in the following sections.

E-Mail recipients

You can send an E-Mail to a single user by simply passing a string with either a GMail username ( will be appended automatically), or with a full E-Mail address:

yag.send(to='', contents="Hello, Mike!")

Alternatively, you can send E-Mails to a group of people by either passing a list or a tuple of E-Mail addresses as to:

yag.send(to=['', ''], contents="Hello there!")

These E-Mail addresses were passed without any aliases. If you wish to use aliases for the E-Mail addresses, provide a dictionary mapped in the form {address: alias}, for example:

recipients = {
    '': 'Mike',
    '': 'Fred'
yag.send(to=recipients, contents="Hello, Mike and Fred!")

Magical contents

The contents argument of yagmail.SMTP.send() will be smartly guessed. You can pass it a string with your contents or a list of elements which are either:

  • If it is a dictionary, then it will be assumed that the key is the content and the value is an alias (currently, this only applies to images). For example:
contents = [
    "Hello Mike! Here is a picture I took last week:",
    {'path/to/my/image.png': 'PictureForMike'}
  • If it is a string, then it will first check whether the content of the string can be read as a file locally, for example 'path/to/my/image.png'. These files require an extension for their content type to be inferred.
  • If it could not be read locally, then it checks whether the string is valid HTML, such as <h1>This is a big title!</h1>.
  • If it was not valid HTML either, then it must be text, such as "Hello, Mike!".

If you want to ensure that a string is treated as text and should not be checked for any other content as described above, you can use yagmail.raw, a subclass of str.

If you intend to inline an image instead of attaching it, you can use yagmail.inline.

Using yagmail from the command line

yagmail includes a command-line application, simply called with yagmail after you installed it. To view a full reference on how to use this, run yagmail --help.